Afghanistan has no outlet to a sea. The State shares borders with Iran and Pakistan and China (in the easternmost part of the country), as well as with three new Central Asian republics - Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan.
The territory of Afghanistan is located in South-Central Asia, with plains in the north and southwest. The climate is subtropical continental with cold winters and dry, hot summers. The average temperature and precipitation vary with an altitude: in winter from +8 to -20°C, in summer from +32 to 0°C.
All rivers, except the Kabul, which flows into the Indus, are drainless. The largest rivers are - the Amu Darya and the Helmand. They are fed mainly on melt waters of glaciers.
Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries in the world. For centuries, Afghanistan was the eastern part of the Persian Empire. Since then, it is a part of the Iranian cultural area. In the modern history, this land was invaded by Britain, the USSR, and most recently, by the United States. Over the past 30 years (since 1978) there is civil war in the country.
Afghanistan is Islamic Republic with a presidential form of rule.
Afghanistan has an ancient history and culture. However, many of historical monuments were destroyed during the war. For example, the two famous statues of Buddha in Bamyan Province were destroyed by members of the Taliban, who considered them to be pagan. Many architectural monuments are located in the cities of Kandahar, Ghazni, Herat, and Balkh. The Minaret of Jam, in the valley of the Hari River, is included in the List of World Heritage Sites of UNESCO. A Cloak of Muhammad is stored inside the famous Khalka Sharifa in the city of Kandahar.
The two huge mountain ranges of the Hindu Kush stretch on the territory of Afghanistan. These mountains have preserved the original appearance and could be a great area for hiking and mountain climbing. But because of ongoing civil war, the country suffers from enormous poverty, the entire infrastructure is destroyed.
Above all, a travel to Afghanistan need a special permit